China military expanding reach into Arctic region, Pentagon says

The report said: "Civilian research could support a strengthened Chinese military presence in the Arctic Ocean, which could include deploying submarines to the region as a deterrent against nuclear attacks". The capabilities that China acquires by these means include "dynamic random access memory, aviation technologies, and antisubmarine warfare technologies", all of which have "the potential to degrade core USA operational and technological advantages". The United States rejects China's claims to the South China Seas.

China placed anti-ship cruise missiles and long-range surface-to-air missiles on the disputed Spratly Islands in South China Sea, the report said, despite Xi's 2015 statement saying the country "does not intend to pursue militarization" of the vital sea lane.

Taiwan has much smaller military capabilities than China, and the gap is growing, the Pentagon report said.

The report considered several scenarios for China using military force against Taiwan.

China continues to build up its military to challenge and supplant the United States as the preeminent power in the Indo-Pacific region, the assistant defense secretary for Indo-Pacific security affairs said today. Beijing continues to use "persuasion and coercion" to limit the growth of pro-independence sentiment on self-rule island of Taiwan, the report said.

China is also importing advanced Su-35 fighters from Russian Federation. There have been four such operations so far this year, suggesting the Navy was on pace to exceed its annual average of about seven transits.

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Joseph Dunford, recently warned Congress that USA companies that did business in China were often indirectly benefiting the Chinese military, citing Google as an example. The first one is now undergoing sea trials. "Alongside its military modernisation, it seek to have the ability to affect security along China's periphery and beyond", Schriver said.

"My sense of the way the Chinese operate is somewhat incremental", Brown said in an interview this week at Bloomberg's headquarters in NY.

A report titled "2019 China Military Power" released by the Pentagon on Thursday identified Pakistan as one of the countries where Beijing intends to build its military base.

"They can hide the necessary ice strengthening that is required for their submarines to enter ice conditions and so we would not be seeing them doing the necessary work for the emplacement of the upward-looking sonar, the hardening of their sail, the retractable fins: All of this can just simply be hidden from sight as they're doing it", Huebert said.

According to a report from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) released last week, the us and China together accounted for half of all global military spending in 2018. There has been progress in developing the fifth-generation FC-31 and J-20 aircraft, including a recent demonstration of both the J-20 in November.

However, there are no reports in any open source literature that would lead experts to believe that the Chinese military has already gained the technological capability and the know-how to operate submarines in the Arctic, Huebert said.

China also has special mission aircraft, 450 transport planes, 450 bombers and 150 special mission aircraft, while Taiwan deploys only 30 transport planes and 30 special mission aircraft and has no bombers, the Pentagon said. The nation is sailing two new cruisers and is building more, he said.